SOURCE Deliverables

NEW Policy Paper on 'It wasn’t me! The Luxembourg Court Orders on the EU-Turkey Refugee Deal'

It wasn’t me! This was in essence what the European Council, alongside the Council and the Commission, answered to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) when asked about the authorship of the EU-Turkey Statement. This is surprising, as the Statement – often referred to as the EU-Turkey Refugee Deal – was widely celebrated by the EU institutions themselves as the main EU response to the ‘refugee crisis’. In this Policy paper the authors argue that the EU institutions purposefully – and unfortunately, successfully – circumvented the democratic and judicial checks and balances as laid down in the EU Treaties. 

You can download the document at: https://www.ceps.eu/publications/it-wasn’t-me-luxembourg-court-orders-eu-turkey-refugee-deal

 

Policy Paper on 'Trump’s Travel Bans: Harvesting personal data and requiem for the EU-US Privacy Shield'

This Policy paper examines the main implications and challenges of the recent Executive Orders or ‘travel bans’ issued by US President Donald Trump. It argues that one of the key ulterior motives behind these orders is to manoeuvre the US into an advantageous position for harvesting personal data on individuals from around the world, including EU citizens and residents. The paper analyses these orders and other recent US legislative developments that allow for greater access and processing of raw communications of EU citizens, and argues that they put the sustainability of the EU-US Privacy Shield and the EU right to privacy under profound strain.

You can download the document at: https://www.ceps.eu/publications/trump%E2%80%99s-travel-bans-harvesting-...

Report on 'Societal Ethics and Biometric Technologies'

This report addresses the widespread ethical issues raised by the increasing use of biometric technologies. It concentrates on the social and political effects of novel governmental schemes of policing, surveillance and identity management that combine biometric information with cloud based computing and the automated analysis of big data.

You can download the document at: http://www.societalsecurity.net/sites/default/files/imce/source_d6.2_fin...

Report on 'Global Threats, Local Fears'

This report investigates European and national policy initiatives and public reactions to the influx of refugees into the European Union in the second half of 2015.

You can download the document at: http://www.societalsecurity.net/sites/default/files/imce/source_d3.6_fin...

Report on 'Dynamic Visualizations of the (on-going) results of WP4'

The Report offers dynamical interfaces allowing the user to navigate through the data collected by the KCL team to study the links between security, national borders and Schengen area.

You can download the document at: http://www.societalsecurity.net/sites/default/files/imce/source_d9.5_fin...

Publication on 'The global economic crisis as a critical juncture? The crisis’s impact on migration movements and policies in Europe and the U.S.' - Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies

The current global economic crisis has resulted in the strongest recession in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries since the Great Depression in the early 1930s and the 1970s oil shocks. This special issue sets out to explore how the most recent economic crisis impacted immigration and immigration-related policy in the U.S. and in European countries that are part of the OECD. 

The work on the editorial is funded through the FP 7 funded SOURCE project. 

You can download the document at: http://societalsecurity.net/publication/new-source-publication-global-economic-crisis-critical-juncture-crisis’s-impact

Policy Paper on 'Migration and Asylum Data for Policy-making in the European Union: The problem with numbers'

The migration, humanitarian and policy crises in the European Union in 2015 and early 2016 have highlighted, among many other problems, a pressing need for reliable, timely and comparable statistical data on migration, asylum, and arrivals at national borders. In this fast-moving policy field, data production and the timeliness of dissemination have seen some improvements but the sources of data remain largely unchanged at national level. The policy demand for the most recently available data points to the need for a better understanding of their strengths and limitations.

This paper examines the reasons for some of the main problems with the data for policy and for public discussion. It makes a set of recommendations, calling for a complete and updated inventory of data sources and for an evaluation of the quality of data used for policy-making. 

You can download the document at: https://www.ceps.eu/publications/migration-and-asylum-data-policy-making-european-union-–-problem-numbers​

Policy Brief on 'A European Border and Coast Guard: What’s in a name? '

This paper assesses the Commission’s proposal presented in December 2015 to set up a European Border and Coast Guard (EBCG), based on the responses made by the EU border agency Frontex to the ‘refugee crisis’ that began in 2015 and continues unabated. It explores the extent to which this proposed new body will be capable of remedying the EU’s shortcomings in meeting established border and asylum standards and related institutional needs on the ground and concludes that it is unlikely to do so. The paper argues that the EBCG proposal does not establish a true European Border and Coast Guard. Instead it would revamp Frontex into a Frontex + Agency. The EBCG would expand the current logic of national border guards to be committed to the Frontex Agency ‘pools’ and therefore does not solve the ‘dependency’ of Frontex on member states. More importantly, the EBCG would do too little to ensure that member states comply with EU border and asylum standards, which has constituted the central deficiency throughout 2015 and earlier. We find that it will also fall short of establishing a professional culture in border control cooperation to be shared across the Union. Revamping and relabelling Frontex will create expectations that will be difficult to fulfil if compliance with EU border, reception, and asylum standards remains weak on the ground. The paper calls on the EU to give higher priority to policies dealing with the structural compliance with EU border and asylum standards by all member states, moving beyond the EU Dublin system and including an enlarged role for the European Asylum Support Office (EASO). 

You can download the document at: https://www.ceps.eu/publications/european-border-and-coast-guard-what’s-name​

Policy Brief on 'EU-Morocco Cooperation on Readmission, Borders and Protection: A model to follow?'

Greater cooperation with third countries is one of the EU’s core responses to the refugee crisis. This cooperation is focused on the readmission of individuals irregularly staying in the EU, on border surveillance and control, and on the reception of refugees in third countries.

This paper poses the question of what kind of cooperation the EU should pursue with third countries. As the current approaches are not new, the authors present the lessons from the EU’s long cooperation with Morocco to inform the current debate. They argue that the lessons learnt from the cooperation with Morocco show the limited feasibility and appropriateness of EU approach towards third countries, and that cooperation with third countries should not come at the expense of migrants’ rights. They should instead open up regular channels for asylum-seekers and not link readmission to other fields of EU external action under the ‘more-for-more’ principle.

You can download the document at: https://www.ceps.eu/publications/eu-morocco-cooperation-readmission-bord...

Policy Paper on What is happening to the Schengen borders?  

What is happening to the Schengen borders? Is Schengen in ‘crisis’? This paper examines the state of play in the Schengen system in light of the developments during 2015. It critically examines the assertion that Schengen is ‘in crisis’ and seeks to set the record straight on what has been happening to the intra-Schengen border-free and common external borders system. The paper argues that Schengen is here to stay and that reports about the reintroduction of internal border checks are exaggerated as they are in full compliance with the EU rule of law model laid down in the Schengen Borders Code and subject to scrutiny by the European Commission. It also examines the legal challenges inherent to police checks within the internal border areas as having an equivalent effect to border checks as well as the newly adopted proposal for a European Border and Coast Guard system. The analysis shows that the most far-reaching challenge to the current and future configurations of EU border policies relates to ensuring that they are in full compliance with fundamental human rights obligations to refugees, effective accountability and independent monitoring of the implementation of EU legal standards. This should be accompanied by a transparent and informed discussion on which ‘Schengen’ and which 'common European Border and Coast Guard Agency' we exactly want within current democratic rule of law and fundamental rights remits. 

You can download the document at: https://www.ceps.eu/publications/what-happening-schengen-borders

Report on Human values in threat analysis 

This report aims to clarify the role of values in the conceptualisation of security in threat analyses in the different sectors of the overall security landscape in Europe. This is done on the basis of analyses of official documents, policy pronouncements, literature reviews and interviews. It is argued that the connection between values and threats often remains unclear in security strategies and risk assessments referring to values like human rights, democracy and the rule of law for their justification. In want of common operationalisations of these values, it results in a great variety of risk assessments where the value impact of risks is evaluated differently. As a basis for security policy, there is therefore a need for making the normative judgments involved in the analyses more explicit. The authors of this report highlight three basic dimensions of such value judgments, related to questions of universalism vs. relativism and individualism vs. collectivism. These are exemplified by cases of refugee management and everyday security. Against this background, the landscape of European threat analysis is then reviewed, including a new type of national risk assessments prescribed by EU regulations on disaster risk management. 

You can download the document at: D6.1 Report on human values in threat analysis

Guidebook for Knowledge Sharing on Societal Security 

This is the first of three versions of the guidebook to be issued within the SOURCE Network of Excellence. After a general overview of knowledge sharing where the importance of tacit knowledge is highlighted the very challenging conditions for knowledge sharing in societal security are explored. Thereafter follows an exploration of knowledge sharing methods. At the present stage of the action it is mainly based on literature and pre-SOURCE experience. 

You can download the document at: D2.7 Guidebook for Knowledge Sharing on Societal Security

Analytic report on the impact of the global financial crisis on societal security. 

This report provides an overview of the short and medium term effects of the global financial crisis on societal security in Europe. 

You can download the document at: D5.3 Analytic report on the impact of the global financial crisis on societal security

Annual Societal Security Report 2

This report presents data for security relevant topics, focussing on events covered in media discourse, citizens’ perception of mundane everyday security and experts’ assessment of security relevant developments in contemporary societies. Data from a variety of sources are used to cover a wide array of topics. 

You can download the document at: D3.5 Annual societal security report 2

Policy Brief on 'What is happening to the Schengen borders?'

What is happening to the Schengen borders? Is Schengen in ‘crisis’? This paper examines the state of play in the Schengen system in light of the developments during 2015. It critically examines the assertion that Schengen is ‘in crisis’ and seeks to set the record straight on what has been happening to the intra-Schengen border-free and common external borders system. The paper argues that Schengen is here to stay and that reports about the reintroduction of internal border checks are exaggerated as they are in full compliance with the EU rule of law model laid down in the Schengen Borders Code and subject to scrutiny by the European Commission. It also examines the legal challenges inherent to police checks within the internal border areas as having an equivalent effect to border checks as well as the newly adopted proposal for a European Border and Coast Guard system. The analysis shows that the most far-reaching challenge to the current and future configurations of EU border policies relates to ensuring that they are in full compliance with fundamental human rights obligations to refugees, effective accountability and independent monitoring of the implementation of EU legal standards. This should be accompanied by a transparent and informed discussion on which ‘Schengen’ and which 'common European Border and Coast Guard Agency' we exactly want within current democratic rule of law and fundamental rights remits. 

You can download the document at: https://www.ceps.eu/publications/what-happening-schengen-borders

Policy Brief on The EU and its Counter-Terrorism Policies after the Paris Attacks 

This paper examines the EU’s counter-terrorism policies responding to the Paris attacks of 13 November 2015. It argues that these events call for a re-think of the current information-sharing and preventive-justice model guiding the EU’s counter-terrorism tools, along with security agencies such as Europol and Eurojust. Priority should be given to independently evaluating ‘what has worked’ and ‘what has not’ when it comes to police and criminal justice cooperation in the Union.

Current EU counter-terrorism policies face two challenges: one is related to their efficiency and other concerns their legality. ‘More data’ without the necessary human resources, more effective cross-border operational cooperation and more trust between the law enforcement authorities of EU member states is not an efficient policy response. Large-scale surveillance and preventive justice techniques are also incompatible with the legal and judicial standards developed by the Court of Justice of the EU.

The EU can bring further added value first, by boosting traditional policing and criminal justice cooperation to fight terrorism; second, by re-directing EU agencies’ competences towards more coordination and support in cross-border operational cooperation and joint investigations, subject to greater accountability checks (Europol and Eurojust +); and third, by improving the use of policy measures following a criminal justice-led cooperation model focused on improving cross-border joint investigations and the use of information that meets the quality standards of ‘evidence’ in criminal judicial proceedings. Any EU and national counter-terrorism policies must not undermine democratic rule of law, fundamental rights or the EU’s founding constitutional principles, such as the free movement of persons and the Schengen system. Otherwise, these policies will defeat their purpose by generating more insecurity, instability, mistrust and legal uncertainty for all.

You can download the publication at: https://www.ceps.eu/publications/eu-and-its-counter-terrorism-policies-a...

Policy Brief on Safe Harbour or into the storm? EU-US data transfers after the Schrems judgment 

In its recent Schrems judgment the Luxembourg Court annulled Commission Decision 2000/520 according to which US data protection rules are sufficient to satisfy EU privacy rules regarding EU-US transfers of personal data, otherwise known as the ‘Safe Harbour’ framework. What does this judgment mean and what are its implications for EU-US data transfers? In this paper the authors find that this landmark judgment sends a strong message to EU and US policy-makers about the need to ensure clear rules governing data transfers, so that people whose personal data is transferred to third countries have sufficient legal guarantees. Without such rules there is legal uncertainty and mistrust. Any future arrangement for the transatlantic transfer of data will therefore need to be firmly anchored in a framework of protection commensurate with the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and the EU's data protection architecture.

You can download the publication at: https://www.ceps.eu/publications/safe-harbour-or-storm-eu-us-data-transf...

SOURCE Mid-Term Report 

The report summarises the main achievements and progress made in the project and presents the upcoming activities in the second period. The report serves as a supplement to the Periodic Report 1 and presents the main recommendations and conclusions of the first review meeting. The report also follows the first mid-term meeting of the project. The recommendations of the boards following the mid-term meeting are also presented in this report. 

You can download the document at: D1.2 Mid-term report I

Report on the Role of Financial Regulation in the Provision of Security

This report provides an overview of mechanisms and factors securing financial circulation. 

You can download the document at: D5.2 Report on the role of financial regulation in the provision of security 

Report on the Video Interview Film with Stakeholders

The following report presents the conception and realisation of short video interviews with various stakeholders on their perceptions on societal security, future security threats and key actors in addressing these threats. 

You can download the document at: D9.14 Video interview film with stakeholders 

Publication: Article on Societal Security – Modes of interaction of different stakeholders

This article describes the modes of interaction of the different domains concerned with societal security (social and human science researcher, technology developer, security technology end-user, security policy-maker and civil society organizations) and identifies obstacles and barriers which could hinder a successful interaction and cooperation of these actors to enhance societal security. The final result is a set of recommendations how to overcome these barriers and obstacles and how to enhance knowledge sharing and cooperation between the different domains. For these analyses two types of data were used: a survey among the different stakeholders of societal security as well as literature research about knowledge sharing in general and experiences as well as lessons-learned from other sectors (e.g. health, multinational firms) regarding preconditions, processes and methods to improve common understanding and knowledge transfer.

You can download the document at: http://www.noveltyjournals.com/journal/IJNRIS/Issue-4-July-2015-August-2...

Publication on the Societal Security Scenarios by University Students

University students with different disciplinary backgrounds simulated actor positions and problem solving in a societal security scenario. The scenario is a hypothesized situation of local unrest and conflict relating to temple asylum. The puzzle that the 23 participants were supposed to solve was the question, how religious freedom and claims for equal treatment in exercising church sanctuary conflict with rule of law and the state’s necessity to maintain public order. 

You can download the document at: D9.15 University students societal security scenarios

Annual Societal Security Report 

This reports presents the results of the first round of the Annual Societal Security Report, based on different data sources. It provides the basis for the next four annual reports and represents the prototype for the upcoming surveys. Different data sources are used to develop a complex view on different aspects of societal security. 

You can download the document at: D3.4 Annual societal security report 1

Report on the theory of risk as a societal security instrument

This report compares risk methodologies in the fields of finance and security in the light of uncertainty and analyses the consequences for societal security. 

You can download the document at: D5.1 Report on the theory of risk as a societal security instrument

Report on the Survey Database

This deliverable presents the tool kit for the SOURCE societal security survey to be conducted in five consecutive waves in WP3. Security is regarded as consisting of many dimensions and the more so when it is qualified as “societal” security. The SOURCE societal security survey is designed as work in progress, i.e. each annual wave will be used to improve the tool as it stands. This deliverable represents the state of play at the outset of the first wave. Four principal types of data will be used, each requiring a specific strategy of analysis and interpretation and each providing a partial interpretation for the analysis of the overall theoretical concept of “societal security”. The multi-layered data structure constitutes a methodological challenge that mirrors the theoretical and conceptual challenge posed by the concept of societal security. 

You can download the document at: D3.3 Survey data base

Report on Principles, Methods and Tools for Implementing Interfaces

This Report identified both a list of obstacles to as well as general recommendations for successful knowledge sharing between the different sectors concerned with societal security and developed a set of tools and methods to overcome experienced difficulties in the interaction, to stimulate discussions and to improve the mutual understanding of the future SOURCE network of excellence. 

You can download the document at: D2.5 Report on principles, methods and tools for implementing interfaces

Report providing an Overview and analysis of existing modes of exchange between relevant sectors

This report pursued the objective to describe the modes of interactions of the different sectors concerned with societal security and to detect the obstacles which could hinder a successful interaction and cooperation of all sectors to enhance societal security in Europe. For these analyses three types of data were used: the results of the sector survey meeting already published in D2.3, the results of an online questionnaire and six different studies containing desktop research about the different security claims defined in D2.3.

You can download the document at: D2.4 Overview and analysis of existing modes of exchange between relevant sectors

Report on the upcoming SOURCE Journal: Security, Society and Technology

The following report presents the aims and plans for establishing the SOURCE Journal Security, Society and Technology (originally called Technology, Security & Society in the description of work). The report outlines the aims and scope of the journal and presents the chosen format and technical aspects. The editorial management structure and plan is further outlined, and ends with an example for the composition of the first issue.

You can download the document at: D9.3 Journal: Technology, Security & Society

SOURCE Deliverable:  Report on theory and methodology for mapping of societal security networks

This report designs methodological guidelines to map out the professionals and institutions in charge of securing society in Europe. It first takes stock of academic and policy debates on societal security and then exposes a mixed-method research cycle.

You can download the document at: D4.1 Report on theory and methodology for mapping of societal security networks

Sector survey meeting report

This report is a summary of the sector survey meeting that was organised by the SOURCE Network on the 5th of June 2014 in Brussels. During the meeting, representatives from different professions and institutions and the partners of the SOURCE consortium discussed a number of security problems and solutions, following a structured approach of decision support for security solutions, based on the DESSI method.

You can download the document at: D2.3 Sector survey meetings and report

Survey handbook and complementary research strategy

Methodology paper providing the basic empirical approach regarding the comparative field studies that are going to be conducted in WP3. It discusses the envisaged sampling strategy and includes important components of the field research tool kit (task 3.3) i.e. the questionnaire. It is to be understood as the main and underlying basis for the field research that will be carried out in task 3.4 and lead to the annual societal security reports. 

You can download the document at: D3.2 Survey handbook and complementary research strategy

Methodology workshop and review of available empirical sources

This report has the function to deal with the main question of how to assess societal security by reviewing available empirical knowledge on perceptions of security in society. At the same time, it represents the first phase in a three-step research approach heading for the aim of WP3, which is to generate an annual societal security report that will provide the SOURCE Network of Excellence with empirical data and insights on perceptions of societal security.

You can free Download the document at: D3.1 Methodology workshop and review of available empirical sources

Workshop Coordination Plan

The report outlines the role of the partners involved in the workshop coordination, the timeline of all workshops organised throughout the SOURCE project and the logistical and organisational memorandums for workshops. It is meant to serve as a guideline for all partners of the SOURCE project when organising a workshop.  

You can free Download the document at: D2.2 Workshop coordination plan

Network Coordination Plan

The following report presents the strategy for managing the large primary network which forms one of the main components of the SOURCE project. The report outlines the network strategy, activities and communication, financial and management plan. 

You can free Download the document at: D2.1 Network coordination plan

SOURCE Inception Report

The following report is based on the project’s Kick-Off Meeting which took place in Brussels on 28 January 2014. The Inception Report documents the meeting and provides references for the project’s operation. 

You can free Download the document at: D1.1 Inception report

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